Gospel of Luke Chapter Twenty-Two

22:1 At that time, the Feast of the Unleavened Bread – also called Passover – was approaching.
22:2 The chief priests and scribes sought how they could get rid of him, because they were afraid of the people.
22:3 Then the Adversary entered Judas who was called Iscariot and was one of the twelve.
22:4 So he went to the chief priests and Jewish officials to discuss how he might hand him over to them.
22:5 They were glad to, and agreed to pay him money.
22:6 He agreed and began to seek the opportunity to hand him over to them away from the crowds.
22:7 Then the first day of the Unleavened Bread Feast arrived – on which the Passover lamb was sacrificed.
22:8 Then Jesus dispatched Peter and John and told them, “Go and prepare the Passover for us so we may eat.”
22:9 They asked, “Where do you want us to prepare it?”
22:10 He replied, “When you go into the city, a man will meet you carrying a jug of water. Follow him into the house he enters.
22:11 Then tell the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you, ‘Where is the dining room where I can eat the Passover with my disciples?’
22:12 Then he’ll show you a large furnished upper chamber. Prepare it there.”
22:13 Then they left and found everything just as he told them. They prepared the Passover there.
22:14 When the time arrived, he sat down at the table along with the messengers.
22:15 Then he told them, “I wanted to eat this Passover with you before my ordeal.
22:16 Because I tell you, I will not eat again until it is completed by the authority of God."
22:17 Then he picked up the cup and offered it to God and said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves.
22:18 Because I tell you, I won’t drink of the fruit of the vine until returning to the sanctuary of God."
22:19 Then he took some bread and offered it to God. He broke it and gave it to them and said, “This is my substance1 - offered for you – do this in remembrance of me.”
22:20 In the same way, he took the cup after they had eaten. He said, “This cup, poured out for you, is a new testament of my essence.2
22:21 Yet consider that the hand of the one who has me arrested is here with mine at the table.
22:22 For indeed, the Servant of Humanity will depart as ordained, but woe to that man by whom he is handed over."
22:23 Then they began discussing among themselves which one of them might be doing this.
22:24 Then an argument arose between them about which one of them should be considered the greatest.
22:25 So he told them, “The leaders of the materialists lord it over them and those who have authority over them are called dignitaries.
22:26 But this is not the path for you. For you, one who is greatest among you must become like the newcomer, and the leader like the servant.
22:27 For who is greater: One who sits at the table or one who serves? It isn’t the one who sits at the table. Indeed, I am among you as one who serves.
22:28 You have stood by me in my trials.
22:29 And just as my LORD has given me sanctuary, I give it to you so
22:30 that you may eat and drink at my table in my sanctuary, and you will sit in divinity, presiding over the twelve tribes of Israel.
22:31 Simon, Simon! Just consider, the Adversary demands permission to sift you like wheat.
22:32 Yet I have prayed for you so your faith doesn’t fail you. Once you have turned back, strengthen your brothers.”
22:33 Yet Peter replied, “Master, I am with you and ready to go either to prison or to my death.”
22:34 He replied, “I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow today until you have denied that you know me three times.”
22:35 Then Jesus told them, “When I sent you out without a money belt or a bag or sandals, you didn’t lack anything, did you?” They replied, “No – nothing.”
22:36 He told them, “But now whoever has a money belt should carry it. Same with a bag. And whoever has no sword should sell his cloak and buy one.
22:37 Because I tell you, what has been written – ‘And he was numbered with the transgressors’3 – must be accomplished by me.”
22:38 They replied, “Master, look – here are two swords.” Then he told them, “It is enough.”
22:39 Then he left and – as was his custom – went to the Mount of Olives. And the disciples followed him.
22:40 When he arrived there, he told them, “Pray that you won’t enter into temptation.”
22:41 Then he withdrew from them – about a stone’s throw away. He knelt down and began to pray:
22:42 “LORD, if it pleases You, take this cup away from me, but let Your will – not mine – be done.”
22:43 Then an angel from the spiritual realm appeared to him and strengthened him.
22:44 He was struggling and praying very earnestly, and his sweat became like drops of blood falling to the ground.
22:45 When he rose from prayer he returned to the disciples and found them sleeping – as they had been grieving.
22:46 Then he asked them, “Why are you sleeping? Get up and pray that you won’t enter into temptation.”
22:47 While he was speaking, a throng appeared and the one called Judas – one of the twelve – was leading them. He approached Jesus to kiss him.
22:48 But Jesus told him, “Judas – are you betraying the Servant of Humanity with a kiss?”
22:49 When those around him saw what was happening, they asked, “Master, should we attack with swords?”
22:50 And one of them struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his right ear.
22:51 So Jesus answered, “Stop – no more of this.” Then he touched his ear and healed him.
22:52 Then Jesus told the priests and officials of the temple and the elders who had come out against him: “Have you come out with swords and clubs as you might against a thief?
22:53 When I was with you every day in the Temple: You didn’t lay hands on me. But now your time has come – as the power of darkness is yours."
22:54 After arresting him, they led him away and brought him to the chambers of the high priest. Peter followed at a distance.
22:55 After kindling a fire in the center of the courtyard, some were sitting there together. Peter was sitting with them.
22:56 Then a servant girl saw him as he sat in the light of the fire. Looking closely at him, she said, “This man was also with him.”
22:57 But he denied it. He said, “Madam, I don’t know him.”
22:58 A little later, another person saw him and said, “You are one of them too.” But Peter said, “Man, I’m not.”
22:59 After about an hour passed, another man insisted. He said, “Certainly, this man was also with him. He is also from Galilee.”
22:60 Peter replied, “Man, I don’t know what you’re talking about.” Immediately, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed.
22:61 The Master turned and looked at Peter. Peter remembered the Master’s statement – how he told him, “Before a rooster crows today, you will deny me three times.”
22:62 Then he left and wept bitterly.
22:63 Now the men who were holding Jesus in custody were mocking him and beating him.
22:64 They blindfolded him and demanded, “Predict who will hit you!”
22:65 And they said many other offensive things to him.
22:66 When daylight came, the council of elders of the people assembled, along with the chief priests and scribes. They led him away to their council chamber, and said:
22:67 “If you are the Anointed of God [Messiah, Christ], tell us.” But he told them, “If I tell you, you wouldn’t believe me.
22:68 And if I asked you, you wouldn’t answer.
22:69 But from this time forward, the Servant of Humanity will sit at the right hand of Almighty God.”
22:70 And they all asked, “Are you the Representative of God then?” He replied, “Yes, you said it because I am.”
22:71 Then they said, “What further need do we have for testimony? For we’ve heard it ourselves – from his own mouth!”


1. Verse 22:19. The Greek word σῶμα (sōma) can mean the physical body or a body of men, a “society” or in a metaphorical sense, an “ethical or mystical” body, or a “heavenly body.” It can also be used to describe a vehicle of one’s consciousness, which can be, for example, a vehicle of dedication or servitude. Because Jesus is referring to bread that has been offered to the Supreme Being, we know he wasn’t referring to his physical body. His physical body did not become the bread. His physical body continued to exist separately from the bread. Rather, Jesus was using the term metaphorically to indicate that his very substance – the body of his life – like the bread he offered – is an offering to God.

2. Verse 22:20. The Greek word, αἷμα (haima) can mean “blood” when speaking literally about the physical body of men or animals – or “the seat of one's life” when speaking in a larger sense – or “of those things that resemble blood, grape juice” when speaking of those things that are the essence of other things. Within the metaphorical context of Jesus' discussion, these would all be captured with the word “essence.” The fact that Jesus was not speaking of physical blood is confirmed in the verse following this. “Fruit of the vine” is considered the essence of the vine, not its blood. Jesus is speaking of the juice he has just offered to the Supreme Being. The text indicates that Jesus is referring to the juice in a metaphorical sense because juice is the essence of the grape. His life is an offering to God. Thus he is stating that his offering to God is his essence.

3. Verse 22:37. Jesus quotes from Isaiah:
Therefore I will give him a portion among the great, and he will divide the spoils with the strong, because he poured out his life unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors. (Isaiah 53:12)
4. Verse 22:42. Jesus is not speaking of a cup per se. The text indicates he is speaking of his coming fate. This is a metaphorical use of the word ποτήριον (potērion). According to the lexicon: “one's lot or experience, whether joyous or adverse, divine appointments, whether favourable or unfavourable, are likened to a cup which God presents one to drink: so of prosperity and adversity.”