Gospel of Luke Chapter Twenty

20:1 One time, when he was teaching people in the Temple and preaching the Gospel, the chief priests and the scribes, along with the elders, confronted him.
20:2 They said, “Tell us by what authority you are doing these things. Who gave you this authority?”
20:3 He replied to them, “I will ask you a question: Tell me –
20:4 was the baptism of John from heaven or from men?”
20:5 They discussed this among themselves – “If we say, ‘From heaven’ he will say, ‘Why didn’t you believe him?’
20:6 But if we say, ‘From men,’ everyone will stone us to death, for they are convinced that John was a prophet.”
20:7 So they said they didn’t know where it came from.
20:8 “Then neither will I tell you by what authority I am doing these things,” Jesus replied.
20:9 Then he told the people the following analogy: “A man planted a vineyard and rented it out to some grape growers. Then he left on an extended journey.
20:10 When the harvest came, he sent a servant to the grape growers so they would deliver to him some of the grape harvest. But the grape growers beat him and sent the servant away empty handed.
20:11 Then he sent another servant and they beat him as well. They also treated him offensively and sent him away empty handed.
20:12 Then he proceeded to send a third, and they wounded him and threw him out.
20:13 So the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What should I do now? I will send my beloved son. Perhaps they will respect him.’
20:14 When the grape growers saw him, they discussed among themselves, saying, ‘This is the heir. Let’s kill him so the inheritance will be ours.’
20:15 So they threw him out of the vineyard and killed him. What will the owner of the vineyard do to them?
20:16 He will come and destroy those grape growers and give the vineyard to others.” When the people heard this, they said, “May this never come to pass!”
20:17 Then Jesus looked at them and said, “Why is it written, ‘The stone that the builders rejected became the chief corner stone’?
20:18 Anyone who falls on that stone will be shattered. But whomever it falls upon, it will scatter him like dust.”
20:19 The scribes and the chief priests sought to arrest him at that time, but they were afraid of the people. For they understood that the analogy he told was about them.
20:20 So they watched him and sent spies disguised as devoted in order to catch him making a statement that would allow them to arrest him on the legal authority of the governor.
20:21 They asked him, “Teacher, we know that you speak and teach appropriately and you aren’t partial to anyone, but teach the path of God in truth.
20:22 Is it right for us to pay taxes to Caesar – or not?”
20:23 But he perceived their deception and said to them:
20:24 “Show me a denarius. Whose likeness and inscription does it have on it?” They replied, “Caesar’s.”
20:25 He said, “Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.”
20:26 So they couldn’t catch him stating anything in the presence of the people – and being amazed at his answer, they became silent.
20:27 Then some sadducees – who say there is no resurrection1 – approached him.
20:28 They asked him, “Teacher, Moses wrote that if a man’s brother – who has a wife and no children – dies, his brother should marry the wife and raise children for his brother.
20:29 Now there were seven brothers. The first took a wife and died childless.
20:30 The second
20:31 and the third married her and similarly, all seven died leaving no children.
20:32 Then finally the woman died.
20:33 Therefore, in the resurrection, which one’s wife will she be? For all seven had married her.”
20:34 Jesus said to them, “The subjects of this world1 marry and are given in marriage.
20:35 But those considered worthy to attain the other world – indeed, be resurrected from death – will neither marry nor are given in marriage.
20:36 For they cannot die anymore because they are spiritual3 and are the servants of God – being the subjects of the resurrection.
20:37 This is because those who die will rise up. Even Moses illustrated this in the verses about the burning bush, where he calls the LORD, ‘The God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.’4
20:38 So He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. Because all these live for Him.”
20:39 Some of the scribes responded, “Teacher, you have spoken beautifully.”
20:40 For they didn’t have the courage to ask him anything more.
20:41 Then he asked them, “How is it they say the Anointed of God [Messiah, Christ] is David’s servant?
20:42 For David himself says in the Book of Psalms, ‘The LORD said to my master, ‘sit at my right hand
20:43 until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.’5
20:44 Thus David calls him ‘Master.’ How then can he be his servant?”
20:45 As all the people listened, he spoke to his disciples:
20:46 Be careful of the scribes who like to walk around in long robes and like being greeted with respect in the markets and the seats of honor in the synagogues and the banquets.
20:47 They forcibly appropriate widows’ households and for appearances they offer long prayers. They will receive the greatest consequences.”

Footnotes:

1. Verse 20:33. The Greek word ἀνάστασις (anastasis) – translated to resurrection – indicates the rising of the spirit-person from the body at the time of death. The lexicon defines the word as, “a rising from the dead.”

2. Verse 20:34. The Greek word αἰών (aiōn) has been translated to “age” in some translations. But the word also means “worlds” or “universe” according to the lexicon. This indicates Jesus is speaking of the material world, as opposed to the spiritual world – see next verse.

3. Verse 20:36. The Greek word ἰσάγγελος (isaggelos) can mean, “like the angels.” Because the angels are spiritual, Jesus is indicating being of a spiritual quality – that is, eternal and of the spiritual realm – the abode of the angels.

4. Verse 20:57. Jesus is referring to Exodus, understood to be written by Moses:

"Do not come any closer," God said. "Take off your sandals, for the place where you are standing is holy ground." Then he said, "I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob." At this, Moses hid his face, because he was afraid to look at God.” (Exodus 3:5-6, NIV)

5. Verse 20:42. Jesus is quoting from Psalm 110:

The LORD says to my lord [master*]: "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet." (Psalm 110:1)
*The word “lord” or “master” in Psalm 110 is derived from the Hebrew word אֲדֹנָי ('adonay), which means master or lord. This is distinguished from “LORD” here – translated from the Hebrew word יְהֹוָה (Yĕhovah) – the Holy Name of God. This indicates that David was not referring to God, but rather, the messenger of God or Anointed of God before him – in this case Saul. This is confirmed as David stated elsewhere after cutting a piece of Saul’s robe:
"The LORD forbid that I should do such a thing to my master, the LORD's anointed, or lay my hand on him; for he is the anointed of the LORD." (1 Samuel 24:6 NIV)
The use of this reference in Luke 20:42 indicates that Jesus is speaking of a role: The position of messenger of God or Anointed of God – spiritual teacher and Representative of God. Jesus indicates he is in this role – the Anointed of God – but he also sees himself as the follower and servant of David.